VW Golf manuals

Volkswagen Golf Service & Repair Manual: Undulations

Radial depressions are slight concavities in the tyre sidewall.
They run from the bead towards the shoulder of the tyre. These parts appear in the figure → Fig..
The cause is the accumulation of material at the joints of the tyre components.
Undulations have no effect on:
Safety,
Service life,
Handling or
Other characteristics of the tyre.
Undulations are visible to varying extents. It is not necessary to inspect the tyre or remove it from the rim.
What causes undulations?
Modern steel belted tyres are constructed with single-ply side walls to save weight.
The sidewall components consist of long strips before they are joined together to form a tyre. They must overlap at the joints. Consequently, slight irregularities or waves are created in the area of the overlapping parts. The overlaps are easier to see from the outside due to the single-ply construction.
   

Saw-tooth wear

Flat spots caused by storage or handling
What is a flat spot? The terms flat area and flats are also used for the term flat spot. Flat spots caused by storage or handl ...

Flat spots caused by hard braking
  This type of flat spots may be caused by hard braking on a rough surface such as a tarmac road. During this type of braking manoeuv ...

Other materials:

Working with the air conditioner service station
  Caution If there is evidence to suggest that chemical substances have been added in the vehicle to seal leaks, do not connect the air conditioner service station and do not extract the refrigerant. ...

Removing and installing trim for backrest release mechanism
Removing –  Pull operating lever -1- upwards -arrow A-. –  Insert flat-bladed screwdriver between trim and operating lever as shown in illustration. –  Releas ...

Separating backrest cover from backrest padding
  Note Removal and installation is described for the left seat. Apply the same instructions for removal and installation of right seat components as appropriate. Special tools and workshop equipment required ...

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