VW Golf manuals

Volkswagen Golf Service & Repair Manual: Undulations

Radial depressions are slight concavities in the tyre sidewall.
They run from the bead towards the shoulder of the tyre. These parts appear in the figure → Fig..
The cause is the accumulation of material at the joints of the tyre components.
Undulations have no effect on:
Safety,
Service life,
Handling or
Other characteristics of the tyre.
Undulations are visible to varying extents. It is not necessary to inspect the tyre or remove it from the rim.
What causes undulations?
Modern steel belted tyres are constructed with single-ply side walls to save weight.
The sidewall components consist of long strips before they are joined together to form a tyre. They must overlap at the joints. Consequently, slight irregularities or waves are created in the area of the overlapping parts. The overlaps are easier to see from the outside due to the single-ply construction.
   

Saw-tooth wear

Flat spots caused by storage or handling
What is a flat spot? The terms flat area and flats are also used for the term flat spot. Flat spots caused by storage or handl ...

Flat spots caused by hard braking
  This type of flat spots may be caused by hard braking on a rough surface such as a tarmac road. During this type of braking manoeuv ...

Other materials:

Changing headlights over from driving on left to driving on right (gas discharge headlights with dynamic high beam control and LED daytime running light)
If a right-hand drive vehicle is driven in a left-hand drive country, or vice versa, the headlights must be converted. This is necessary in order to avoid dazzling oncoming traffic with the asymmetric low beam headlights.   Note ...

Removing and installing boot
Special tools and workshop equipment required Hose clip pliers -V.A.G 1275- Torque wrench -V.A.G 1332- Tool insert 24 mm -V.A.G 1332/11- Locking pliers for Phaeton steering rack -VAS 6199-   ...

Lower section of the centre console
Fig. 8 Overview of the lower section of the centre console (left-hand drive vehicles) Fig. 9 Overview of the lower section of the centre console (right-hand drive vehicles) Key for   and  : Stowage compartment   AUX-IN socket , USB socket or multimedia socket (MEDIA-I ...

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