VW Golf manuals

Volkswagen Golf Service & Repair Manual: Undulations

Radial depressions are slight concavities in the tyre sidewall.
They run from the bead towards the shoulder of the tyre. These parts appear in the figure → Fig..
The cause is the accumulation of material at the joints of the tyre components.
Undulations have no effect on:
Safety,
Service life,
Handling or
Other characteristics of the tyre.
Undulations are visible to varying extents. It is not necessary to inspect the tyre or remove it from the rim.
What causes undulations?
Modern steel belted tyres are constructed with single-ply side walls to save weight.
The sidewall components consist of long strips before they are joined together to form a tyre. They must overlap at the joints. Consequently, slight irregularities or waves are created in the area of the overlapping parts. The overlaps are easier to see from the outside due to the single-ply construction.
   

Saw-tooth wear

Flat spots caused by storage or handling
What is a flat spot? The terms flat area and flats are also used for the term flat spot. Flat spots caused by storage or handl ...

Flat spots caused by hard braking
  This type of flat spots may be caused by hard braking on a rough surface such as a tarmac road. During this type of braking manoeuv ...

Other materials:

Assembly overview - rear belt buckle
1 -  Left double belt buckle With rear belt switch, driver side -E258- Removing and installing → Chapter Always renew after belt tensioner has deployed with seat belt fastened Press on belt buckle when bolting it on Must rest flat against cont ...

Service fluids and consumables
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings All service fluids and consumables, e.g. toothed belts, tyres, coolant, engine oil, spark plugs and vehicle batteries, are being constantly developed. For this reason, service fluids and consumables should be replaced ...

Coolant hose schematic diagram
  Note The arrows point in the direction of coolant flow. The arrows on the coolant pipes and on the ends of the hoses must be aligned with each other. Vehicles ►June 2013   ...

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