VW Golf manuals

Volkswagen Golf Service & Repair Manual: Undulations

Radial depressions are slight concavities in the tyre sidewall.
They run from the bead towards the shoulder of the tyre. These parts appear in the figure → Fig..
The cause is the accumulation of material at the joints of the tyre components.
Undulations have no effect on:
Safety,
Service life,
Handling or
Other characteristics of the tyre.
Undulations are visible to varying extents. It is not necessary to inspect the tyre or remove it from the rim.
What causes undulations?
Modern steel belted tyres are constructed with single-ply side walls to save weight.
The sidewall components consist of long strips before they are joined together to form a tyre. They must overlap at the joints. Consequently, slight irregularities or waves are created in the area of the overlapping parts. The overlaps are easier to see from the outside due to the single-ply construction.
   

Saw-tooth wear

Flat spots caused by storage or handling
What is a flat spot? The terms flat area and flats are also used for the term flat spot. Flat spots caused by storage or handl ...

Flat spots caused by hard braking
  This type of flat spots may be caused by hard braking on a rough surface such as a tarmac road. During this type of braking manoeuv ...

Other materials:

Indicator lamps and fuel gauge
Fig. 187 In the instrument cluster: fuel gauge for petrol and diesel First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings  Lit up Needle position   Possible cause   Solution Red mark ...

Removing and installing rear 3-point seat belt, 2-door model, with belt tensioner
Removing   WARNING   Observe safety instructions for pyrotechnic components → Chapter.   Observe disposal regulations for p ...

Identification of Denso heater and air conditioning unit
  Note Pay attention to correct assignment when replacing components. The combination of different makes of component is not permitted → Electronic Parts Catalogue. –  Remove left centre console trim ...

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