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Volkswagen Golf Service & Repair Manual: Charge factor

There must be space both for liquid and vapour in a container. As the temperature rises, the liquid expands. The space occupied by the vapour becomes smaller. Eventually, there will only be liquid in the container. After that time, even a small increase in temperature will result in a very large increase in pressure, since the liquid is seeking to expand further but there is no space for it to do so. The resulting forces are sufficient to burst the container. To prevent containers from being overcharged, regulations governing the storage of compressed gases specify how many kilograms may be charged into a container for every litre of container volume. This charge factor multiplied by the internal volume gives the permissible charge quantity. The charge factor for the refrigerants used in cars is 1.15 kg/l.
   
Water content
Only very small amounts of water are soluble in liquid refrigerant. On the other hand, refrigerant vapour and water vapour mix in any proportion. ...

Detecting leaks
External damage can cause leaks in the refrigerant circuit. Because a small leak will involve only small quantities of refrigerant, leaks should be checked for using an electronic leak detector or ...

Other materials:

Introduction
This repair manual is intended to provide technicians and fitters with the basic knowledge required for performing trained work on these systems.   Note Successful completion of a training course such as AB160 or ST160 ...

Removing and installing control unit and hydraulic unit, LHD vehicles, four-wheel drive, diesel engine
Special tools and workshop equipment required Torque wrench -V.A.G 1331- Torque wrench -V.A.G 1410- Brake pedal depressor -V.A.G 1869/2-         Sealing plugs, assemb ...

Undercoating, additional protected areas on hybrid vehicles
Undercoating, rear body of hybrid vehicles a -  Undercoating Coat thickness: 0.3 mm b -  Undercoating Coat thickness: 0.5 mm ...

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